The fruit of…, This section focusses on the historical, sociological, philosophical, economic, political, and scientific context of modernism. [19] Gustave La Bon, La Civilization des Arabes, 135. BY GUSTAVE LE BON {b. That toleration was recognized by some European scholars who had doubts or those few in number who believed and gazed at the history of the Arabs. Gustave Le Bon was a French doctor and sociologist and a pioneering figure in social psychology. يشرف على بوابة قصة الإسلام الأستاذ الدكتور راغب السرجاني، المؤرخ والباحث ومؤلف العديد من النظريات التاريخية. [30] Gustave La Bon, La Civilization des Arabes, 618. 5/7/1841 in Nogent-le-Retrou) p. 262 (d. 12/15/1931) He also made the Ka‘bah an Islamic place of worship and soon it became the main house of Islam.”[28], You are indeed on a high model of moral character, “Muhammad was a man of noble manners, wisdom, kindheartedness, compassion, mercy, truthfulness and trustworthiness.”[29], “Few are the nations that excelled the Arabs in civility. : Taylor and Francis, 2016. Ta… He imposed only a little Jizyah on them. Gustave Le Bon was born on May 7, 1841, in Nogent-le-Retrou. Such outcomes, as I have mentioned more than once, could never have been achieved by force nor had they been attained by these who ruled Egypt before the Arabs.”[7], “The Arabs completed the conquest of Spain very quickly because the big cities hastened to open their gates to the conquerors that entered Cordoba, Malaga, Granada and Toledo, almost with a peace treaty. The primary criterion…, We are living in a very singular moment of history. When the Christians conquered the Arabs of Andalusia, the Arabs favored to be killed and driven out entirely rather than to leave Islam. Since the very first events, they contacted the native inhabitants of the neighboring territories who, suffering for long centuries from the transgression of their conquerors, were willing to receive, with warmth and gladness, any new conqueror to lighten the severe pressure from them. Gustave Le Bon nació el 7 de mayo de 1841, en Nogent-le-Rotrou, Francia. يصدر عن قصة الإسلام موقع قصة الإسلام لايت الذي تهتم بالموضوعات الخفيفة والمشوقة التي تتعلق بالتاريخ. Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931) Médecin et sociologue français, Gustave Le Bon est l'auteur de nombreux ouvrages dont La Psychologie des foules en 1895. We will soon see that the Arabs were credited with presenting ancient knowledge to the medieval people and that the western universities, for five centuries, had no scientific resources other than their writings. ‎The Crowd Gustave Le Bon, french social psychologist, sociologist, anthropologist, inventor, and amateur physicist (1841-1931) This ebook presents «The Crowd», from Gustave Le Bon. From La Civilization des Arabes (the Civilization of the Arabs): “Islam, from among all religions, best suits the science discoveries and is the most ready to edify souls and force them to abide by justice, kindness and toleration.”[1], “With the flourishing of Arab civilization, religious toleration was absolute – a fact for which we have brought more than one indication. Gustave le Bon (1841-1931) He was a French Orientalist and researcher in sociology and psychology. The more tolerant Islam seems to be, the stronger it becomes internally and externally. doi:10.4324/9781135000356-REM1586-1, Merrill, T.(2016). This influence on the West could be perceived only by imagining the state in which Europe was before civilization was brought to it. They levied upon them only a fixed annual Jizyah as little as no more than a dinar per noble and half a dinar per slave. Gustave Le Bon (* 7. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A dynamic table of contents allows you to jump directly to the work selected. Le Bon practiced medicine in Paris after finishing his medical studies in 1866. Le Bon, Gustave (1841-1931) Gustave Le Bon (n. 7 de mayo, 1841 - † 13 de diciembre, 1931) fue un sociólogo y físico aficionado, en el campo de la psicología social es una gran influencia por sus aportaciones sobre la dinámica social y grupal. In addition he traveled extensively in Europe, Asia, and North Africa and composed a series of travelogues and works on archeology and anthropology, including "La Civilisation des Arabes" and "Les Civilisations de l'Inde" … This rudimentary theory of learning was first formulated when he was stud… But it should be recognized today that all this was the work of the Arabs alone – an opinion opted for by all scholars who studied the Arab writings.”[24], “The more we delve into the study of Arab civilization, scientific books, arts and inventions, the more new facts and extensive horizons will appear to us. Le Bon, Gustave, 1841-1931. In spite of carrying the sword to spread their religion, they left those who did not like to adopt it free with their own religious precepts.”, According to Michaud in his History of the Crusades, “The Qur’an which enjoins Jihâd upon the Muslims shows great toleration towards the followers of other religions. Muhammad challenged both men and jinn to produce the like of the Quran and this was the strongest indication to the truth of his message. Gustave Le Bon : parcours d'un intellectuel, 1841-1931 by Benoit Marpeau ( Book ) Gustave Le Bon by Raymond Queneau ( Book ) The person Le Bon, Gustave, 1841-1931 represents an individual (alive, dead, undead, or fictional) associated with resources found in Boston University Libraries. This is why the credit of Muhammad on the Arabs was extremely great.”[26], One of the greatest personalities known in history, “Since the value of men is measured with what they do of glorious deeds, Muhammad is one of the greatest personalities known in history. Nevertheless, the Qur’an did not spread by the sword. Crowd psychology, also known as mob psychology, is The Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism. Le Bon believed an understanding of crowd psychology was essential for a proper understating of the both history and the nature of man. In The Psychology of Peoples (1894), Le Bon posited that emotions such as honor, nationalism, and religious faith (rather than reason) drive social evolution. Psicólogo social francés nacido en Nogent-le Rotrou el 7 de mayo de 1841 y fallecido en Marne-la Coquette el 15 de diciembre de 1931. Gustave Le Bon (Le Bon, Gustave, 1841-1931) A Wikipedia article about this author is available.. Ordinary people can typically gain direct power by acting collectively. They left them free with their property, churches and laws and made their own (rather than the Muslim) judges responsible for their legal affairs. On the contrary, it spread only by invitation and by invitation alone was it embraced by different peoples who later conquered the Arabs, like the Turks and Mongols.”[4], “When ‘Umar ibn al-Khattâb entered Jerusalem (Bayt al-Maqdis), he showed a great toleration towards its inhabitants that made them feel secure for their religion, property and habits. Contributon Biography His greatest contribution was the book he wrote in 1895 called "The Crowd:A study of the popular mind". Gustave Le Bon, Bases scientifiques d'une philosophie de l'histoire. تضم بوابة قصة الإسلام العديد من التطبيقات الفرعية مثل: المنتديات، والمكتبات، والإنفوجرافيك. ‎2 works of Gustave Le Bon French social psychologist, sociologist, Anthropologist, inventor, and amateur physicist (1841-1931) This ebook presents a collection of 2 works of Gustave Le Bon. In fact, the Arabs established one of the strongest religions which prevailed in the world and whose influence is still more vital than that of any other religion. Le Bon was a direct descendant of Jean-Odet Carnot, whose grandfather, Jean Carnot, had a brother, Denys, from whom the fifth president of the French Third Repu… Then, they devoted themselves to the study of sciences and arts, translation of  Greek and Latin books into Arabic and foundation of  universities that remained the only cultural refuge in Europe for a long time.”[22], “Sicily, at the time the Arabs left it, was culturally, industrially and socially higher than it had been when they entered it. 1/ Les contenus accessibles sur le site Gallica sont pour la plupart des reproductions numériques d'oeuvres tombées dans le domaine public provenant des collections de la BnF.Leur réutilisation s'inscrit dans le cadre de la loi n°78-753 du 17 juillet 1978 : Historically, because large groups of people have been able to bring about dramatic and sudden social change in a manner that bypasses the established due process, they have also provoked controversy. Le Bon, Gustave, 1841-1931: Title: Psychologie de l'éducation Language: French: LoC Class: LA: Education: History of education: Subject: Education, Higher Subject: Education -- France Category: Le Bon (Gustave, 1841-1931) auteur, déresponsabilisation, foule, groupe, Le Bon, masse, psychologie sociale . Among his famous books is La Civilization des Arabes (The Civilization of the Arabs), one of the most fundamental books written in Europe in the modern age, impartial and objective in judgment on Arab and Islamic civilization. He granted safety to its people and gave them a pledge of respect for their churches and property and prohibited Muslims to perform their rites in their synagogues.”[6], “‘Amr ibn al-‘Âs, in his conduct in Egypt, was no less kind. Pensées brèves (1918); Psychologie des temps nouveaux (1920); Le déséquilibre du monde (1923); Les incertitudes de l’heure présente (1923); Bases scientifiques d’une philosophie de l’histoire (1931); and others. The opposite was true of the Arabs, who very quickly founded a new civilization extremely different from those prior to it and succeeded in attracting numerous peoples to their religion and language, not to mention their new civilization.”[19], Europe, in its civilization, is indebted to the Arabs, “The Arabs had a great influence on the West, and Europe, in its civilization, is indebted to the Arabs. “We see from the Qur’anic verses that Muhammad’s toleration with the Jews and Christians was so great as none among the founders of the religions before him, of Judaism or Christianity, had never been, and we would see how his successors followed his method in this respect. If you belong to such an institution, please log in or find out more about Muhammad forbade killing monks because they devoted themselves to worship. ‘Umar entered the city in the company of only a small number of Muslims and asked Patriarch Safronius to accompany him in his tour to the holy sites. During the 9th and 10th centuries, when Arab civilization in Spain was very bright, the centers of culture in the West were no more than towers inhabited by brutal seniors proud of being unlettered. Gustave Le Bon (7 de mayo, 1841 - 13 de diciembre, 1931) fue un sociólogo y físico aficionado, en el campo de la psicología social es una gran influencia por sus aportaciones sobre la dinámica social y grupal. In his sight, it does not deserve all what was said about it or about its leader, Charles Martel, who but stopped the Arab conquests only in northern France whilst their conquests went on in its south. Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, Centre-Val de Loire on 7 May 1841 to a family of Breton ancestry. Gustave Le Bon, né le 7 mai 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou et mort le 13 décembre 1931 à Marnes-la-Coquette, est un médecin, anthropologue, psychologue social et sociologue français. Le Bon, Gustave لوبون، غوستاف، 1841-1931 Le Bon, G. (Gustave), 1841-1931 Gustave Le Bon لو بون، جوستاف، 1841-1931 لوبون، غوستاف Лебон, Г. تشتمل على موسوعة من الآف الموضوعات والبحوث والدراسات الموثقة والمواد الصوتية والمرئية والإنفوجرافيك، التي تتناول التاريخ والحضارة الإسلامية بأسلوب سلس وممتع، كما تتناول تراجم موثقة لأبرز الشخصيات التاريخية المؤثرة في التاريخ والحضارة الإنسانية. … Meanwhile, the Arabs well ruled the Spaniards, the same as they had done with those of Syria and Egypt. That the Arabs did not make other attempts to conquer this region goes back to the fact that northern France was very cold and rainy and this neither suited them nor encouraged them to stay there. In the following sentences I am going to quote from the books of many of them, which proves that our opinion on this issue is not just ours. doi:10.4324/9781135000356-REM1586-1, Merrill, T. 2016, 'Le Bon, Gustave (1841–1931)' in Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism, Taylor and Francis, viewed 21 December 2020, . As important as it might be and, in spite of the fact that a lot of topics and paragraphs deserve to be quoted here, the aim of the book permitted only to choose what seemed to me to be the clearest and most important. . The Arabs of Spain were so forbearing with their conquered people that they allowed their bishops to hold their religious conferences, such as the Christian Seville Conference (782 A.D.) and Christian Cordoba Conference (852 A.D.). His writings have theories of national traits, racial superiority, herd behavior and crowd psychology. Meanwhile, the most knowledgeable among the Christians were from the poor, ignorant monks who stayed in their churches to submissively erase the valuable books of the ancients to have enough scrolls to transcribe the books of worship.”[20], “The civil affair of the Arabs did not seem, in any country they ruled, clearer as it did in Spain which had no civilization before the Arab conquest and then came to have a flourishing civilization in the era of the Arabs before it fell to the lowest bottom of degradation after their evacuation.”[21], “The Arabs had no sooner completed their conquest of Spain than they began to carry out the message of civilization in it. It exempts the patriarchs, monks and their servants from taxes. The whole of the common characteristics with which heredity endows the individuals of a race constitute the genius of the race. found: Rouvier, C. Les idées politiques de Gustave Le Bon, c1986: p. 261 (b. Gustave Le Bon. In spite of the fact that the Arab civilization perished much like the previous ones, nothing affected the religion of the Prophet which still has the same influence it had in the past and the same great authority over souls, although other older religions lose day after day something of their power.”[16], “Saladin did not like to follow, with the Crusaders, the same barbarous approach their ancestors had followed with the Muslims. [18] Gustave La Bon, Les opinions et les croyances, (adapted from the Arabic translation), 6. 1841-1931 Густав Le Bon, Gustave, 1842-1931 Le Bon, G. 1841-1931 Gustav Лебон, Гюстав, 1841-1931. His La Civilization des Arabes (the Civilization of the Arabs) is a clear witness to Islam and Islamic civilization. According to Robertson in his History of Charlemagne, “The great zeal the Muslims (from among all men of religions) had for their religion went side by side with a spirit of toleration toward the followers of other religions. In The Laws of Imitation (1880), he suggests that imitation drives the development of language…. The electric interests and abilities of Gustave Le Bon led to a full and productive life. Le Bon, Gustave (1841–1931). See also what's at your library, or elsewhere. Le Bon, Gustave (1841–1931). Indeed, the Arabs were no less influential to the West than they were to the East. A similar toleration was shown by the Arabs in all Syrian cities, whose inhabitants soon accepted the sovereignty of the Arabs and most of them embraced Islam instead of Christianity and learnt Arabic as well.”[5], “The conduct of the Commander of the Believers, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattâb, in Jerusalem (Bayt al-Maqdis) proves how kindly the Arab conquerors dealt with the conquered peoples, the opposite of what was done by the Crusaders in Jerusalem many centuries later. أكبر بوابة للتاريخ الإسلامي على شبكة الإنترنت، وتنشر محتواها بسبع لغات عالمية. Je představitelem psychologismu . In his works, he recognizes the credit of Arab and Islamic civilization on European … It was sufficient for him to wipe away the pictures hung on the Ka‘bah and cleanse it from the 360 idols which he commanded to be overturned. doi:10.4324/9781135000356-REM1586-1, https://www.rem.routledge.com/articles/le-bon-gustave-1841-1931, © 2020 Informa UK Limited, an Informa Group Company, Discover key events and debates that shaped the Modernist movement, Edward Louis Bernays retains a place in the history of modernity for synthesizing Freudian psychology, political communication (or propaganda) and the media. … Muhammad was certain that Allâh commanded him to call people to a new religion which He revealed to him in order to renew the world and, by virtue of his certainty, he was able to change the entire world.”[18], “The Arab conquests had a specific character the like of which was missing with other conquerors who came after them. They announced publicly anywhere that they respected the peoples’ creeds, customs and habits and rather satisfied themselves with taking, in return for protecting those peoples, a very little Jizyah much less than what they paid to their previous masters.”[14], “It is they who taught, or say, tried to teach the Christians toleration, the most cherished human characteristic. It was these who civilized Europe physically, mentally and morally and no nation along history has ever produced the like of what they produced within such a short time and no people have ever excelled them in artistic innovation.”[25], The best nation to be produced for the people, “However, the achievements made by Muhammad in the Arab territories went beyond those of all religions before Islam, including even Judaism and Christianity. (1931) Ouvrage illustré de: 1- Médailles traduisant les sentiments d'une époque; 2- Instruments de l'auteur pour mesurer les variations des personnalités biologiques correspondant aux changements de personnalités mentales; 3- Combinaisons d'architecture montrant l'influence de … The numerous Christian churches they built during the Arab reign give a clear proof that the Arabs respected the creeds of other nations which submitted to their authority.”[15], “The Arab civilization produced by the followers of Muhammad  was subject to the same norms which governed the previous civilizations in the world: emergence, evolution, decline and death. He offered the Egyptians complete religious freedom, absolute justice and respect for their property, and imposed a fixed annual Jizyah of no more than fifteen franks per capita, as opposed to the high taxes levied by the Roman Caesars. Le Bon, Gustave (1841–1931), French social scientist and philosopher. The Psychology Of Peoples how to order. Hijo de Jean Marie Charles Le Bon y Annette Josephine Eugenic Tetiot Desmar- linais. Whenever anyone of them spoke, attention would be paid to him with great respect and he would be asked to rely only on a logical rather than textual proof. Psychologie des foules / par Gustave Le Bon. May 7, 1841 d. Dec 13, 1931} The following work is devoted to an account of the characteristics of crowds. sociologue français, 1841-1931. [29] Gustave La Bone, la religion et la vie, (adapted from the Arabic translation), 67. The crowd’s “collective mind” responds to suggestions more readily than the individual minds of its members, hence its “servility” in the face of strong authority. Few are the ethnic groups which rose and declined like the Arabs. He also has many contributions in social sciences, the most important of which is the theory of Crowd Psychology which is a branch of social psychology. Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931), a French social psychologist, is often seen as the father of the study of crowd psychology. Gustave Le Bon (7. května 1841, Nogent-le-Rotrou – 13. prosince 1931, Marnes-la-Coquette) byl francouzský sociální psycholog, sociolog, antropolog a amatérský fyzik. The Barbarians who occupied the Roman world, Turks and others, regardless of founding great states, did not establish a civilization and, therefore, the purpose of their existence was to utilize, even with great difficulty, the civilizations of the nations they conquered. A dynamic table of contents enables to jump directly to the chapter selected. Gustave Le Bon (Francia, 1841-1931) Psicólogo social y escritor francés, fue el primero en describir el fenómeno de las masas y de la colectividad amorfa; por ello algunos le consideran el fundador de la psicología de masas. At the time of Le Bon's birth, his mother, Annette Josephine Eugénic Tétiot Desmarlinais, was twenty-six and his father, Jean-Marie Charles Le Bon, was forty-one and a provincial functionary of the French government. Since the value of the civilizational influence of a nation on another is determined by the extent it develops and reforms it, the conclusion will be that the Arabs had a great influence on Sicily.”[23], “It is attributed to Bacon, in general, that he was the first to hold experiment and observation, the pillars of the modern scientific methodology, in the position of the instructor. … But even, the different peoples had never known tolerant conquerors like the Arabs nor a religion like theirs.”[9], “The forbearance and toleration that characterized the Arab conquerors, of which historians were ignorant, seemed to explain to what extent they were able to expand their conquests. 6 by Gustave Le Bon; Psychologie de l'éducation by Gustave Le Bon. Mai 1841 in Nogent-le-Rotrou; † 13. They used to show mercy to the weak, be kind towards the conquered and abide by the conditions they imposed upon themselves, to the end of those good traits.”[11], However, La Bon does not hide his sorrow for the fact that the Muslims did not rule France and that their conquests in northern France came to end with Poitiers. Politically, they founded one of the greatest states known in history and civilized Europe culturally and morally. After completing medical studies in Paris he traveled extensively and wrote on a variety of topics ranging from premature burial to equitation. Gustave Le Bon was a French doctor and sociologist and a pioneering figure in social psychology. Obtuvo el título de doctor en 1876. In his works, he recognizes the credit of Arab and Islamic civilization on European and Western civilization, not only by transmitting the Greek and Indian cultures but also by making its own tradition.

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